L'aula del Consiglio di Sicurezza
NEW YORK, 23 DICEMBRE – A meno di una settimana dall’Accordo Politico di Skhirat sul nuovo governo di unita’ nazionale in Libia, una risoluzione che ne riconosce la legittimità arriva sul tavolo del Consiglio di Sicurezza. La bozza ai voti, che il ministro degli Esteri Paolo Gentiloni ha definito “la naturale conseguenza dello sforzo diplomatico fatto dall’Italia e da altri Paesi nelle ultime settimane”, da’ il benvenuto al patto dell’17 dicembre che ha dato vita a un Consiglio di Presidenza di nove membri e a cui viene chiesto di formare un governo entro 30 giorni e di finalizzare gli accordi di sicurezza necessari per la stabilizzazione del Paese.
Il testo, elaborato dalla Gran Bretagna e concordato dai P5 un paio di giorni fa, e’ stato fatto circolare tra i membri eletti e ieri sera messo “in blu”. Parte del linguaggio riprende il Comunicato di Roma, approvato il 13 dicembre alla Farnesina dagli stessi membri permanenti, paesi europei e attori regionali come Egitto e Turchia. E’ stato inoltre introdotto un paragrafo che incoraggia tutte le parti libiche a cogliere l’opportunita’ di impegnarsi costruttivamente con il governo di unita’ nazionale, in linea con le dichiarazioni sulle “porte aperte” dell’inviato speciale dell’Onu Martin Kobler.
Non ci sono riferimenti espliciti al Capitolo Sette, che autorizza l’uso dell forza, ma la bozza ricorda la determinazione della risoluzione 2238 del 10 settembre che la situazione in Libia “costituisce una minaccia alla pace e alla sicurezza internazionale” e offre un mandato di fatto ai Paesi che intendano assistere il governo di unita’ nazionale sollecitandone il sostegno, “se richiesto”, di fronte a minacce di Isis, gruppi collegati, Ansar al Sharia e al Qaida che operano in Libia. Oggi sul giornale francese Le Figaro sono emersi dettagli su “piani di intervento” francesi in Libia all’interno una coalizione internazionale” contro l’Isis. Per “sradicare” l’Isis in Libia “una azione militare nei prossimi sei mesi se non prima della primavera viene considerata indispensabile”, continua Le Figaro, citando fonti del ministero della Difesa.
Inizialmente la Russia aveva posto qualche freno al testo, sia nei tempi che nel linguaggio sostenendo che la bozza andava oltre il semplice riconoscimento dell’Accordo Politico. Un modo per risolvere le perplessità’ di Mosca e’ stato il riferimento al Comunicato di Roma. La bozza fa anche riferimento a risoluzioni precedenti sul fronte delle sanzioni ricordando il blocco dei viaggi e il congelamento die beni per chiunque tenti di sabotare l’accordo.
A seguire in inglese la bozza della risoluzione:
The Security Council,
Recalling its resolution 1970 (2011) and all its subsequent resolutions on Libya,
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and national unity of Libya,
Calling on all parties to armed conflict to take all appropriate steps to protect civilians, and recallingthat all parties to armed conflict must comply strictly with the obligations applicable to them under international humanitarian, human rights and refugee law,
Welcoming the efforts of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) and the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to facilitate a Libyan-led political solution to address the political, security, economic and institutional crises facing Libya, including through the formation of a Government of National Accord,
Welcoming the signing on 17 December 2015 of the Libyan Political Agreement of Skhirat, Morocco by the majority of the Libyan delegates to the UN-facilitated political dialogue, and by a wide range of representatives of Libyan society, municipal leaders and heads of political parties, and recognizing the contribution of Member States to host and support the meetings of that dialogue, in particular the Kingdom of Morocco for its efforts in advancing the Agreement, including through hosting the Libyan Political Dialogue,
Recognizing the need for assistance planning for a Government of National Accord and security arrangements, and recalling that Member States at the Rome Conference on 13 December 2015 underlined their commitment to provide technical, economic, security and counter-terrorism assistance,
Expressing concern at the grave humanitarian situation in Libya and encouraging Member States to respond generously to the Libya Humanitarian Response Plan for 2016,
Welcoming the efforts made by all participants in the UN-facilitated Libyan Political Dialogue and other tracks of the peace process, including the contributions of civil society, tribal leaders, local-level ceasefires, prisoner exchanges and the return of internally displaced persons,
Urging the full, equal and effective participation of women in all activities relating to the democratic transition, conflict resolution and peacebuilding in line with relevant Security Council resolutions, including resolutions 1325 (2000), 2122 (2013), and 2242 (2015), and in this regard welcoming the UN facilitation of meetings of women’s participation within the framework of the Political Dialogue,
Condemning the terrorist acts being committed in Libya by groups proclaiming allegiance to Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) (also known as Da’esh) including those committed by individuals, groups, undertakings and entities designated as associated with ISIL or Al-Qaeda by the Committee established by resolutions 1267 (1999), 1989 (2011) and 2253 (2015) (“the Committee”) and further reiterating grave concern about the negative impact of their presence, violent extremist ideology and deadly actions in Libya, neighbouring States, and the region,
Reaffirming the need to combat by all means, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and international law, including applicable international human rights, refugee and humanitarian law, threats to international peace and security caused by terrorist acts, including those committed by groups proclaiming allegiance to ISIL (Da’esh) in Libya, and recalling, in this regard, the obligations under resolution 2253 (2015), and urging all Member States to actively cooperate in this regard with the Government of National Accord and provide support as requested,
Condemning any engagement in direct or indirect trade, in particular of oil and oil products, modular refineries, and related materiel including chemicals and lubricants, with ISIL (Da’esh), and other individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities designated as associated with ISIL or Al-Qaida by the Committee, and reiterating that such engagement would constitute support for such individuals, groups, undertakings, and entities and may lead to further listings by the Committee,
Expressing its concern about the problem of smuggling oil products from Libya and calling on all Member States to cooperate with the Government of National Accord,
Reiterating its grave concern at the recent proliferation of, and endangerment of lives by, the smuggling of migrants in the Mediterranean Sea, in particular off the coast of Libya and into and through Libyan territory, recalling its resolution 2240 (2015) which condemns all acts of migrant smuggling and human trafficking into, through and from Libyan territory and off the coast of Libya, and urging all Member States to cooperate with the Government of National Accord to tackle this issue,
Reaffirming the importance of holding accountable those responsible for violations or abuses of human rights or violations of international humanitarian law, including those involved in attacks targeting civilians,
Recalling its decision in resolution 1970 (2011) to refer the situation in Libya to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court and affirming the importance of the Government of National Accord’s full cooperation with the International Criminal Court and the Prosecutor,
Expressing deep concern at the threat posed by unsecured arms and ammunition in Libya and their proliferation, which undermines stability in Libya and the region, including through transfer to terrorist and violent extremist groups, and underlining the importance of coordinated international support to the Government of National Accord and the region to address these issues,
Further recalling the arms embargo, travel ban, assets freeze and measures concerning illicit oil exports which were imposed and modified by resolutions 1970 (2011), 1973 (2011), 2009 (2011), 2040 (2012), 2095 (2013), 2144 (2014), 2146 (2014), 2174 (2014) 2213 (2015) (the Measures), and that the mandate of the Panel of Experts established by paragraph 24 of resolution 1973 (2011) and modified by resolutions 2040 (2012), 2146 (2014) and 2174 (2014) was extended until 30 April 2016 by resolution 2213 (2015),
Encouraging the Government of National Accord to implement measures to increase transparency of government revenues and expenditures, including salaries, subsidies, and other transfers from the Central Bank of Libya, to ensure the long-term sustainability of Libya’s financial resources,
Expressing concern about activities which could damage the integrity and unity of Libyan State financial institutions and the National Oil Company, highlighting the importance of these institutions continuing to function for the benefit of all Libyans, and stressing the need for the Government of National Accord to exercise sole and effective oversight over the National Oil Company, the Central Bank of Libya, and the Libyan Investment Authority as a matter of urgency, without prejudice to future constitutional arrangements pursuant to the Libyan Political Agreement,
Emphasizing the need for all parties to comply with their obligations under international humanitarian law and to respect the United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian emergency assistance,
Recalling its determination in resolution 2238 (2015) that the situation in Libya constitutes a threat to international peace and security,
1. Welcomes the signature on 17 December 2015 of the Libyan Political Agreement of Skhirat, Morocco to form a Government of National Accord consisting of the Presidency Council and Cabinet supported by the other institutions of state including the House of Representatives and State Council;
2. Welcomes the formation of the Presidency Council and calls upon it to work expeditiously within the 30 days stated in the Political Agreement to form a Government of National Accord, and to finalise interim security arrangements necessary for stabilising Libya, and in this regard calls upon Member States to respond urgently to requests from it for assistance;
3. Endorses the Rome Communiqué of 13 December 2015 to support the Government of National Accord as the sole legitimate government of Libya, stresses that a Government of National Accord that should be based in the capital Tripoli is urgently needed to provide Libya with the means to maintain governance, promote stability and economic development, and expresses its determination in this regard to support the Government of National Accord;
4. Requests that all Member States fully support the efforts of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General and work with the Libyan authorities and the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) to develop a coordinated package of support to build the capacity of the Government of National Accord, in line with Libyan priorities and in response to requests for assistance;
5. Calls upon Member States, particularly those in the region, to continue to urge all parties in Libya to engage constructively with the Government of National Accord and all other institutions included in the Agreement and calls upon Member States to cease support to and official contact with parallel institutions that claim to be the legitimate authority but are outside of the Libyan Political Agreement as specified by it;
6. Calls upon all Member States to respond urgently to requests for assistance from the Government of National Accord for the implementation of the Libyan Political Agreement;
7. Reiterates its support for the ongoing deliberations of the UN facilitated security track of the political dialogue to finalise security arrangements, and urges existing militias and armed groups to respect the authority of the Government of National Accord and its command structures;
8. Emphasises the importance of the Government of National Accord exercising control over, and safely storing arms in Libya with the support of the international community;
9. Further calls upon the Government of National Accord to protect the integrity and unity of the National Oil Company, the Central Bank of Libya and the Libyan Investment Authority, and for these institutions to accept the authority of the Government of National Accord;
10. Confirms that those individuals and entities engaging in or providing support for acts that threaten the peace, stability or security of Libya, or that obstruct or undermine the successful completion of the political transition to a stable, secure and prosperous Libya under a Government of National Accord, must be held strictly accountable, and in this regard, recalls the travel ban and asset freeze measures reaffirmed in paragraph 11 of resolution 2213;
11. Requests that the Committee be prepared to list individuals, groups, undertakings and entities in Libya associated with Al-Qaida or ISIL;
12. Urges Member States to swiftly assist the Government of National Accord in responding to threats to Libyan security and to actively support the new government in defeating ISIL, groups that have pledged allegiance to ISIL, Ansar Al Sharia, and all other individuals, groups, undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida operating in Libya, upon its request;
13. Calls upon the Government of National Accord to promote and protect human rights of all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including those of women, children and people belonging to vulnerable groups, and to comply with its obligations under international law;
14. Calls upon the Government of National Accord to hold to account those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights, including those involving sexual violence, and to co-operate fully with and provide any necessary assistance to the International Criminal Court and the Prosecutor as required by resolution 1970 (2011) and recalled by resolution 2238 (2015);
15. Recalls resolution 2240 (2015) and urges Member States to cooperate with the Government of National Accord, and with each other, including by sharing information about acts of migrant smuggling and human trafficking in Libya’s territorial sea, on the high seas off the coast of Libya and rendering assistance to migrants and victims of human trafficking recovered at sea, in accordance with international law;
16. Requests that the Secretary-General continue to maintain the necessary flexibility and mobility to adjust UNSMIL staffing and operations at short notice in order to support, as appropriate and in accordance with its mandate, implementation by Libya of agreements and confidence-building measures or in response to their expressed needs, and further requests the Secretary-General to keep the Security Council informed in his reports prior to any such adjustments;
17. Affirms its readiness to review the appropriateness of the Measures, including the strengthening, modification, suspension or lifting of the Measures, and its readiness to review the mandate of UNSMIL, as may be needed at any time in light of developments in Libya, particularly outcomes of the UN-facilitated dialogue;
18. Calls upon all parties to cooperate fully with the activities of UNSMIL, including allowing it free interaction with all interlocutors and to take necessary steps to ensure the security of as well as the unhindered movement and timely access for the UN and associated personnel;
19. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council as appropriate on implementation of the Political Agreement, including acts that disrupt or prevent its implementation;
20. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.
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Alessandra Baldini e’ stata la prima donna giornalista parlamentare per l’Ansa, poi corrispondente a Washington e responsabile degli uffici Ansa di New York e Londra. Dirige OnuItalia.